SRIMAD BHAGAVATAM – SKANDHA III. CHAP. 11.
The unit of Kala at the Sûkshma pole is Paramânu, which is the minutest part of the created thing, not united to form a body. At the Sthula pole is the whole Sthula creation known in its entirety as Parama Mahân. The time during which the Sun crosses in his orbit one paramânu is the Kâla unit paramânu. The time during which he crosses the whole system in his orbit, i.e., crosses all the twelve signs of the Zodiac, is Parama Mahân or one Samvatsara. The units of time and space are thus the same.
1 Dvyanuka = 2 Paramânus.
1 Trasarenu = 3 Paramânus.
1 Truti = 3 Trasarenus.
1 Vedha = 100 Trutis.
1 Lava = 3 Vedhas.
1 Nimesha or wink = 3 Lavas.
1 Kshana = 3 Nimesha.
1 Kâsthâ = 5 Kshanas.
1 Laghu = 15 Kâsthâs.
1 Nâdikâ = 15 Laghus.
1 Muhurta = 2 Nâdikâs.
1 Yâma or Prahara = 6 or 7 Nâdikâs.
1 Ahorâtra (of the Mortals) = 8 Yâmas.
1 Paksha (Sukla or Krishna) = 15 Ahorâtras.
1 Mâsa (Month) = 1 Sukla + 1 Krishna Paksha.
1 Ritu = 2 Mâsas.
1 Ayana = 6 Mâsas (Uttara or Dakshinâ.)
1 Vatsara = 2 Ayanas.
1 Vatsara = 12 Masas
1 Vatsara = 1 Ahorâtra of Devas.
1 Samvatsara = 1 year of Solar months.
1 Parivatsara = 1 year of Jupiter months.
1 Idâvatsara = 1 year of Savana months.
1 Svanuvatsara = 1 year of Lunar months.
1 Vatsara = 1 year of Stellar months.
One hundred Samvatsaras is the maximum age of men.
Satya, Tretâ, Dvâpara and Kali a cycle of these 4 Yugas and their Sandhyâs and Sandhyânsas consist of 12 thousand divine years.
The beginning of a Yuga is its Sandhyâ. Tho end of a Yuga is its Sandhyânsa. Sandhyâ and Sandhyânsa are not included in a Yuga and Yuga Dharma is not to be performed while they last.
Sandhyâ of Satya Yuga = 400 Deva years.
Satya Yuga = 4,000 ” ”
Sandhyânsa of Satya Yuga 400 ” ”
Sandhyâ of Treta Yuga 300 ” ”
Treta Yuga 3,000 ” ”
Sandhyânsa of Treta Yuga 300 ” ”
Sandhyâ of Dvâpara Yuga 200 ” ”
Dvâpara Yuga 2,000 ” ”
Sandhyânsa of Dvâpara Yuga 200 ” ”
Sandhyâ of Kali Yuga 100 ” ”
Kali Yuga 1,000 ” ”
Sandhyânsa of Kali Yuga 100 ” ”
——- 12,000 Deva years.
Dharma is enjoined for the period between Sandhyâ and Sandhyânsa, which is called Yuga.
Dharma has all the 4 pâdas or feet in Satya,
” ” only 3 pâdas in Treta,
” ” only 2 pâdas in Dvapara,
” ” only 1 pâda in Kali.
1,000 Yuga cycles is one Day of Brahmâ or one Kalpa,
*i.e.*, 1 Day of Brahmâ = 1,000 x 12,000 Deva years,
= 1,20,00,000 Deva years.
An equal period of time is also reckoned as one Night of Brahmâ. 14 Manus reign during the Day of Brahmâ, each Manu reigning for:
——– = 71 3/4
i.e., a little over 71 Yuga Cycles. Converted into Deva years: —
1 Manvantara =
12,000 x 1,000
———————- = 8,57,142 6/7
1 Deva year = 360 Lunar years.
12,000,000 x 360
1 Manvantara = —————- = 3,37,142,657 1/2 Lunar years.
The Manvantaras have their Manus, successors of Manus, Rishis and Devas.
The Rishis, Indras, and Devas appear together.
In the daily creation of Brahmâ, Animals, Men, Pitris and Devas are born according to their own Karma.
During the Manvantara, Bhagavân preserves this universe by His own Satva, directly as Manvantara Avatâras and indirectly as Manus and others. When Pralaya approaches, Bhagavân withdraws His Śaktis (or powers). Trilokî is then burnt up by fires from the mouth of Sankarshana. Bhrigu and other dwellers of Mahar Loka proceed to Jana Loka. The waters of Pralaya sweep away everything before them. In that watery expanse, Hari remains seated upon the coils of Ananta, with His eyes closed.
With every Day and Night, the age of Brahmâ declines. He lives for one hundred years only. Half of Brahmâ’s age is called Parârddha. The first Parârddha has expired, the second has commenced with our Kalpa. Every day of Brahmâ is called one Kalpa.
At the beginning of the first Parârddha was Brahmâ Kalpa, when Brahmâ or the present Kosmos was born.
At the end of the first Parârddha was Padma Kalpa, when the Loka-Padma (the lotus of Lokas) appeared at the navel of Hari.
The first Kalpa of the second Parârddha, which is the present Kalpa, is called Varâha Kalpa. Hari incarnated as Varâha or Boar during this Kalpa.
The two Parârddhas are but a wink of Bhagavân. Kâla cannot measure him.
[1 Day of Brahmâ = 12,000,000 Deva years,
1 Night of Brahmâ = 12,000,000 Do.
Multiplying by 360
1 year of Brahmâ = 8,640,000,000 Deva years.
Multiplying by 100
Age of Brahmâ = 864,000,000,000 Deva years.
Multiplying by 360
31,10,40,00,00,00,000 Lunar years.
1 Kali Yuga, including Twilight (Sandhyâ and Sandhyânsa)
= 1,200 X 360 = 4,32,000 Lunar years.
Varâha Kalpa = 50 X 360 + 1 = 180001st Kalpa.
The present is the seventh Manvantara of that Kalpa.
The present Kali Yuga is the 28th Yuga of that Manvantara and 4,994 years of that Yuga have expired in the present year of Christ 1894.
THEOSOPHICAL CORRESPONDENCES. The words Kalpa and Manvantara are carelessly used in Theosophical literature. But I shall use those terms, specially with reference to page 309 of the second volume of the Secret Doctrine (first edition.)
1 Kalpa = 7 Rounds.
1 Round = 2 Manvantaras.
The Pralaya at the end of seven Rounds therefore means the Pralaya of Trilokî.
The last Globe Chain of which the Moon formed a living planet belonged to Pâdma Kalpa. Our Globe D is the 18001st since the birth of the Kosmos. There will be 17999 more such Globes, one after each Pralaya of Globe Chains. There will be 18000 more Pralayas of the Globe Chain. Then there will be a general dissolution or Prâkritika Pralaya, not only of the Globe Chain, but of the whole Kosmic system.