In Bhagavata Purana, Sri Krishna’s reply to Uddhava:
SKANDHA XI. CHAP. 19.
Jnâna (knowledge), Vairâgya (dispassion), Vijnâna (direct knowledge), Sraddhâ (faith) Bhakti (Devotion), these are the requisites of Moksha. The nine (Prakriti, Purusha, Mahat. Ahankâra and the five Tanmatras), the eleven (five Jnânendriyas, five Karmendriyas and Manas), the five Bhûtas, the three (Gunas), that knowledge by which one knows that these constitute all beings and that the One underlies all these is Jnâna.
(The first training of the mind is to break up the objects into their component elements. Thus we can mentally resolve any object into its chemical elements and this Universe into a mass of homogeneous nebula. The process is to be carried further, till we get the Tatvas or the ultimate principles of the Sânkhya philosophy. Then the next step is to realise the one Purusha as underlying all the Prâkritic principles.)
Vijnâna is the direct knowledge of the One by itself and not as pervading all Prâkritic forms. (Jnâna is indirect knowledge and Vijnâna is direct knowledge of Brahmâ).
All the existing things being formed of the three Gunas have their growth, existence and end. What follows the transformation from one form into another, at all the three stages of beginning, middle and end, and what remains behind after the destruction of all forms — that is the existing (Sat).
The Vedas, direct perception, the sayings of great men and logical inference are the four Pramanas or evidences. The world of transformations does not stand the test of any of them (i.e. there is only one real existence, the existence of the transformable and transformed world being only relative and unreal. This is the conclusion arrived at from all sources. Therefore the wise man becomes dispassionate to all things.
Transformation is the end of all actions. Therefore the wise man sees all the regions that may be attained by actions from that of Brahmâ downwards, as miserable and transitory even like the worlds that are seen. This is Vairagya or Dispassion.
I have told you already of Bhakti yoga. Hear again what I say. Sraddhâ or faith in the nectar like sayings about Me, constant recitals about myself, steadiness in worshipping Me, the chanting of devotional hymns, the hearty performance of divine service, adoration by means of the body, worship of my votaries, the realisation of my existence in all beings, the directing of the daily actions and of the daily talks towards Me, the offering up of the mind to Me, the giving up of all desires, of all objects, of all enjoyments and of all joys for my Sake, the performance of Vedic karma all for Me — by all these, Bhakti grows up towards Me.
THE SADHANAS OR EXPEDIENTS.
SKANDHA XI. CHAP. 19.
Yâma consists of —
1. Ahinsâ — the non-infliction of pain.
2. Satya — the practice of truth.
3. Asteya — Not even the mental stealing of other’s properties.
4. Asanga — Non-attachment.
5. Hri — Modesty.
6. Asanchaya — Want of storing for the future.
7. Astikya — faith in religion.
8. Brahmacharya — Abstinence.
9. Mauna — Silence.
10. Sthairya — Steadiness.
11. Kshamâ — forgiveness.
12. Abhaya — fearlessness.
Niyama Consists of
1. Saucha — bodily purity.
2. Do. — Mental purity.
3. Japa — Mental repetition of Mantras or Names of deities.
4. Tapas — Asceticism.
5. Homa — Sacrificial offering.
6. Sraddhâ — faith.
7. Atithya — hospitality.
8. Archanâ — daily worship.
9. Tîrthâtana — Wandering on pilgrimage.
10. Pararthehâ — desire for the Supreme object.
11. Tushti — Contentment.
12. Achârya Sevana — Service of the spiritual teacher.
Yâma and Niyama are practised by men, either for furtherance in life or for Moksha.
Sama — is fixing the mind on Me (and not mental quietness only).
Titikshâ — is forbearance.
Dhriti — is the restraint of the senses of taste and generation.
The best Dâna (gift) is not to oppress any creature.
Tapas — is really the giving up of desires.
Saurya — or power is the control of one’s own nature.
Satya or Truth is the practice of equality.
Rita — is truth speaking that does not cause pain.
Saucha — is only non-attachment to karma, but Tyâga is its complete renunciation.
The wealth to be coveted for is Dharma. I Myself am Yajna, Spiritual teaching is the Sacrificial gift, Prânâyama is the greatest strength.
Bhaga is my Lordly state.
The best attainment is devotion to Me.
Vidyâ is the removal of the idea of separateness from self.
Hrî is the abhorrence of all unrighteous acts (and not merely modesty.)
Srî is (not merely riches but) virtues. Happiness is that which seeks neither happiness nor misery.
Misery is nothing but longings for enjoyment.
The Sage is he who knows about liberation from bondage.
He is ignorant who knows the body to be self.
The Path is that which leads to Me.
The evil path is that which distracts the mind.
The increase of Satva is Svarga (and not merely Indra Loka.)
The increase of Tamas is Naraka.
Guru is the friend and I am that Guru.
This human body is the house.
He is rich who is virtuous.
He is poor who is not contented.
He who has not conquered the senses is the helpless man.
The Lord is he who is not attached to the objects.
He is a slave who is attached to them.