As per our Vedic scriptures the process of creation and destruction of Universe is an eternal cyclic process as shown in Fig.1(Dr. KV). These cycles happen with in-between times of brief rest which is repetitive. Because everything in the universe is a resultant output of an intelligent dynamic process triggered by a program dealing with multiple interconnected probabilities and with a common substratum called the Brahman (or primordial static intelligent force field or energy) or absolute Consciousness, Some physicists have theorized a fundamental holistic connection among all particles of the universe based on this fact and recently they have arrived at the elusive God particle describing it as the cause of the creation.
According to Stephen Hawking renowned Physicist, the God particle may become unstable at very high energy levels (close to 100bn GEV) and can result in the obliteration of the Universe owing to collapse of Time and Space. This is what precisely our Vedic scriptures say as Pralaya or Destruction/Dissolution. Not only the Vedic wisdom tells about Pralaya or cosmic dissolution but our scriptures also predict when the Pralaya will occur and how the cyclic process of creation and destruction is modelled by Divine. The time span for the life of the universe is based on a Brahma’s age, which is actually 100 Brahma years (Please note that our scriptures also confirm about parallel universes and many Brahmas controlling such universes exist). It is interesting to know more about these calculations as given by Srimad Bhagavatam, Brahmanda Purana, Vayu Purana and others.
Vedic chronology of time is described elaborately in the following scriptures:
Mahabharata (Book 12)
Vishnu Purana Bhagavad-gita (8.17), Vayu Purana , and so on
So far, 50 years of Brahma have elapsed since birth of the Universe and we are in the very first Day of the 51st year. This day time of Brahma, Kalpa, is named as Shveta Varaha Kalpa. Inside this Day, 6 Manvantaras have already elapsed and we are in the 7th Manavatara, named as – Vaivasvatha Manvantara (or Sraddhadeva Manavatara). Within the Vaivasvatha Manavantara, 27 Mahayugas (Satya + Treta + Dwapara + Kali (all 4 Yugas) together is a Mahayuga), and the Krita or Satya , Treta and Dwapara Yugas of the 28th Mahayuga have elapsed. We are in the Kaliyuga of the 28th Mahayuga. This Kaliyuga began in the year 3102 BC. Since 50 years of Brahma have already elapsed, we are presently in the second Parardha, also called as Dvithiya Parardha.
According to our ancient scriptures, Brahma, the creator, creates the universe and is universe is destroyed after his 100 years of age. This creation and annihilation is a cyclic process as discussed earlier. The life of Brahma is 100 Divine years called Mahakalpa. Every day he creates 14 Manus one by one and they create and control the world. So there are altogether 14 Manus in one divine day called Kalpa of Brahma. The life of each Manu is called Manvantara and it has 71 periods of four quarters. Each quarter is has four Yugas – Satya, Treta, Dwapara and Kali. The complete calculations of Vedic units of time and periods are described below:
Vedic system has given the idea of the smallest and the largest measure of time.
The division of time as per Vedic system is:
1 day (24 hours) = 60 Ghatis
1 Ghati = 60 Vighatis (also called Pala or Kala)
1 Vighati = 60 Liptas or (also called Vipala or Vikala) 1 Lipta = 60 Viliptas
1 Vilipta = 60 Paras
1 Para = 60 Tatpars
1 Muhurat = 5 Ghatis = 2 hours.
In the ancient times horoscope charts were erected with the birth time mentioned in Ghatis and Vighatis the following is the conversion to remember:
5 Ghatis = 2 hours
5 Vighati = 2 minutes (120 seconds)
The Vedic Units of Time – at Macro level
The shortest cycle is called a Maha yuga. A Maha yuga is 4,320,000 human years. Each Maha yuga is subdivided into the following four ages, whose life spans follow a ratio of 4:3:2:1:
Satya Yuga has 4,32,000 Years X 4 = 17,28,000 Years
Treta Yuga has 4,32,000 Years X 3 = 12,96,000 Years
Dwapara Yuga 4,32,000 Years X 2 = 8,64,000 Years
Kali Yuga 4,32,000 Years X 1 = 4,32,000 Years
1 Maha Yuga equals Sum of All four Yugas = 4,320,000 Years
71 Maha Yuga = 43,20,000 X 71 = 1 Manvantara 1 Manvantara = 30,6720,000 Years
14 Manvantaras = 4,294,080,000 Years
(There are totally 14 Manvantaras)
According to scriptural truths, the earth remains drowned in the water for the period of 8,64,000 years i.e. half the period of Satya Yuga, before the start of each Manvantara, it also remains underwater for the same number of years, i.e. 8,64,000 years, after the conclusion of each Manvantara.
So in 14 Manvantaras the number of years
17,28,000 x 15 = 2,59,20,000 (Number of year in Satyuga)
+ 14 Manvantara = 42,94,0,80,000
1 Kalpa = 4320,000,000 years
One day & night of Brahma = 1 Brahma day = 4,320,000 Mahayuga x 100 x 2 = 8,640,00,000 years = 8.64 Billion years ( as 2 kalpas = 1 day and 1 night of Brahma)
Since the one moment of the life of Brahma is measured to be of our 100 years,
The life of Brahma which is 100 Brahma years will be
8,64,00,00,000 x 360 x 100 = 311,0400,000,000 years = 311.04 trillion years.
The Present Age of Cosmos according to the Vedic System is as follows:
There are 14 Manvantaras in total. The present period is passing through the seventh Manvantara called Vaivaswata Manvantara.
One Manvantara consists of 71 Mahayugas, out of which 27 Mahayugas have already elapsed. We are passing through the first phase of the Kali Yuga which itself is the third Yuga of the 28th Mahayuga and which has come after the passing of Satya Yuga, Treta and Dwapara Yuga.
The time period of Manvantara (exclusive period, when the earth is inundated in water, in the beginning and in the end) = 306,720,000 years
Multiplying these years by 6 = 30,67,20,000 x 6 (Because we are in the midst of 7th Manvantara, of the Svetvaaraah Kalpa and 6 Manvantaras have already elapsed) = 1,8,0,300,000 years
The time period of Pralaya consists of 17,28,000 years since 7 Pralayas have passed, after the end of 6th Kalpa and before the beginning of 7th Kalpa, so 17,28,000x 7 = 12,096,000 years Adding we have:
1,840,300,000 + 120 96 000 + 1,852,396,000 years
Therefore, after 1,85,24,16,000 years ‘VAIVASVAT MANVANTARA’ has started.
27 Mahayugas with each Mahayuga consisting of 43,20,000 years. 43,20,000 x 27 = 116,640,000 years have elapsed
Total = 1,96,90,56,000 years
Presently the time period of Kali Yuga in the 28th Yuga is Time period of Satya Yuga = 17,28,000 Years
Time period of Treta Yuga = 12,96,000 Years
Time period of Dwapara Yuga = 8,64,000 Years Summing up of the above three equals 38,88,000 Years
Since all the above three Yugas have already passed, it means that after 38,88,000 years, Kali Yuga came into existence.
As per scriptures, Kali Yuga started, Krishnapaksha – 13th day, in the Aslesha star and the age of the Kali Yuga has been fixed as 5120 years as till date that is 2019 AD.
Sum of all the three Yugas = the Sum of 27 Mahayugas and the Manvantar + the time period of Kali Yuga passed till date.
Kalpa has 4,32,00,00,000 years and out of these 1,97,29,49,114 years have elapsed. Therefore, the earth’s existence, according to the calculations devised by our ancient sages, comes up to 1,97,29,49,114 years till date. It is interesting to note that according to scientific calculations, the age of the cosmos is estimated between 15 and 20 billion years.
The present Brahma’s age is 50 years. He is presently in 51st year.
The current Kali Yuga commenced at midnight 17 February / 18 February in 3102 BC Before that 50 years have passed for Brahma:.
Therefore: 50 x 360(days/kalpas) x 28 (Manvantaras) x 71 (Mahayugas) x 4,320,000 (each Maha yuga span years) = 154,586,880,000,000 years.
Add 1,97,2949114 years to it and it will be close approximation to 155 Billion years. Modern Scientists have discovered that our current universe is close to 155 billion years!!
1 human year (in the Vedic calendar) = 1 Deva Ahoratra for God (1 day and 1 night)
360 Deva Ahoratras = 1 Deva Vatsara
12,000 Deva Vatsara = 1 Chaturyuga
(12,000 Deva Vatsaras are defined as, 4,800 Deva Vatsaras of Krita yuga, 3,600 Deva Vatsaras of Treta Yuga, 2,400 Deva Vatsaras of Dwapara Yuga and 1,200 Deva Vatsaras of Kali Yuga which is 12,000 * 360 = 4,320,000 human years)
71 Chaturyugas = 1 Manvantara (1 life span of Manu)
14 Manvantaras = 1 kalpa (1 day of Brahma, Lifetime of gods like Indra etc)
2 Kalpas = 1 day + 1 Brahma Ahoratra
360 days of Brahma = 1 Brahma varsha
Our ancestors (Pitr) live 100 years in Pitr loka.
1 day of Pitr = 30 days
(Note: 1 human month = 1 whole day(day+night) of our ancestors and therefore Hindus give ‘Tarpanam’ or offerings to ancestors every amavasya or new moon day)
1 month of Pitr = 900 days
1 year of Pitr = 10800 days
The longevity or lifetime of the Pitṛs is 100 years of the Pitṛs (= 36,000 Pitṛ days = 1,080,000 human days = 3000 human years).
Hope it is clear.
Om Tat Sat.